Sorts of steel

Terms of Steel Types

Terms of Steel Types Explanation of different terms related to steel types. Here, we have mainly listed steel type terms related to Japanese swords.

Metal is a broad term: firstly, there are the chemical elements. Out of the 90 stable elements, 65 are categorized as ‘metals.’ Many of these elements do not occur in pure form and are not suitable for metalworking.

Metals that are suitable for use include Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Zirconium, Niobium, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Aluminum, Silver, Gold, and Platinum. Many other metals consist of a mix of materials, also known as alloys.



Steel structure necessary for hardening the steel. To harden steel, a temperature of ± 700-1500 °C must be achieved.



Cementite is a chemical bond of three iron atoms and one carbon atom (Fe3C), also known as iron carbide. Very hard but also brittle material. An object consisting of 100% cementite is unusable; it disintegrates like cigarette ash.



Steel structure with fine crystals and very soft. This, together with cementite, forms the structure called pearlite.



Martensite is a structure that forms during the hardening of steel. Steel hardening occurs through rapid cooling from the austenite region. Due to this rapid cooling, the carbon dissolved in the austenite does not have time to diffuse out of the crystal lattice. The lattice structure is disrupted by the carbon, creating tensions in the structure, ultimately making the material hard.



Microstructure of cast iron or steel, consisting of alternating layers of cementite and ferrite.


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